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Different Types of Cancer: Their Symptoms & Treatment

15 July, 2020 Arpita Karmakar

 

Cancer in our body occurs when some changes take place in genes.These changes are known as mutations which regulate cell growth.The mutations let the cells divide and multiply in an uncontrollable way.

There are more than 100 different types of cancer and related syndromes. 

Mentioned below are some of the common types of  Cancer

Blood Cancer:

Blood cancer is that type of abnormal blood cell growth that begins in the blood-forming tissues which in turn affects the immune system of our body. Most of these take place in bone marrow where blood is usually produced.

There are three types of blood cancer-

Leukemia - abnormal increase in the production of white blood cells than required to fight infection. 

Lymphoma - begins in the infection-fighting lymphocytes when they grow out of control in lymph nodes and other tissues impairing our immune system. 

Myeloma - an abnormal increase in plasma cells and dysfunctional antibodies resulting in insufficient production of normal cells, red, white and plasma. 

Symptoms

Anemia 

Poor clotting of blood

Bleeding gums, heavy blood loss during periods 

Weakness and Fatigue 

Swelling of Lymph nodes 

Treatment

3MEDS, the best Anti cancer medicine supplier mentions the following treatment procedures: 

Chemotherapy Treatment to restrict the cancer cells from spreading, Radiation Therapy to kill cancer cells and restrict their growth, Stem Cell or Bone Marrow Transplantation to reach the bone marrow through blood to make new healthy blood cells and Blood Targeted Therapy targeted on genes, proteins and supporting blood vessels that help the cancer to grow. 

Breast Cancer:

The type of cancer that develops in breast cells or tissues is known as Breast Cancer. It starts when cells start to divide and grow in an unruly manner.

This reckless cell growth causes cancer because the tumor in it takes away the nutrients and energy and deprives the cells around it. It causes in the inner lining of milk ducts as well as the lobules that supply them milk. 

Symptoms

Lump and pain in either of the breasts. 

Change in the size and shape of breasts.

Any change in the colour of the breast for example the breast may look red or inflamed

Nipples getting inverted or has become pulled in. 

An unusual bloody discharge from either of the two nipples. 

Treatment

Most surgical procedures include lumpectomy, mastectomy, chemotherapy to kill the cancer cells, Hormone blocking therapy to shrink the size of tumor and other preventive surgery for women who are at high risk of breast cancer.

Kidney Cancer:

Cancer in the Kidneys develop when abnormal cells in either of the two kidneys start to multiply and grow in an uncontrollable  way. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. It starts in the renal tube of kidneys but may spread to other parts. 

Symptoms

Bloody urine

A lump on one side of your lower back

Loss of appetite and weight loss 

Repeated fever

Anemia

Pain in lower back without any injury. 

Treatment

Kidney Cancer treatment includes surgeries like Nephrectomy which involves removal of kidney and surrounding tissues, Biologic therapy, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells etc. 

Lung Cancer:

Lung Cancer occurs when there's uncontrolled cell division and proliferation leading to tumor formation in the liver. Major causes of lung cancer include smoking, passive smoke, exposure to toxins and family history.

Symptoms 

Coughing up blood

Persistent lung infection

Frequent headaches

Loss of appetite and weightloss 

Blood clots

Shortness of breath

Coarseness in voice

Treatment

Treatment for lung cancer includes wedge and Segmental resection for removing a portion of lung, Lobectomy and Pneumonectomy to remove an entire lung, chemotherapy to kill cancer cells, immunotherapy and targeted drug therapy

Tonsil Cancer:

Tonsils are the two lymph nodes or fleshy pads which are located on each side respectively at the back of our throat are the Tonsils that help defend our body from bacterial and viral infections in our mouth and throat.Tonsil Cancer is usually caused due to exposure to HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) , certain organ transplant, alcohol and nicotine. 

Symptoms

A sore on the back of the throat lasting for long. 

Difficulty in swallowing and chewing. 

A red or white patch on the Tonsils. 

Pain in the ears. 

A lump in the throat or neck. 

Unintentional weight loss .

Bloody saliva. 

Treatment

Surgery for the removal of the cancer or in some cases, removal of the Tonsils, Radiation Therapy to destroy the cancerous cells before any surgical procedure, Chemotherapy to kill the cancerous cells by powerful medication. 

Skin Cancer:

Skin cancer occurs when there's an abnormal growth of skin cells primarily caused due to the harmful rays of the sun. There are three basic types of skin cancer - Melanoma, Squamous cell carcinoma and Basal cell carcinoma.

Symptoms

A Pearl coloured bump 

A bleeding sore that heals and returns 

A red, firm nodule

A mole that changes in shape, size and colour and that bleeds

Painful lesions that burns or itches. 

Treatment

It's necessary to keep a check on any skin abnormality noticed on skin and seek for immediate medical attention regarding that.

Even if there is a slight change in the skin such as a mole or freckles or allergies, it's necessary to book an immediate appointment with a dermatologist. Wearing Sun protective clothing, using the best sunscreen lotions, avoiding tanning booth etc will be helpful. 

Thyroid Cancer:

It occurs when cells in the thyroid undergo mutations known as genetic changes which enables the cells to grow and multiply rapidly.The accumulated cells then form a tumor. 

Symptoms

It usually doesn't cause any symptoms early in the disease but as it progresses, it may cause:

A lump felt on the neck. 

Increasing hoarseness in voice. 

Difficulty in swallowing. 

Neck and throat aches. 

Swollen lymph nodes in the neck 

Treatment  

Mild thyroid cancers that have comparatively lower risk of spreading in the body might not require treatment right away. While in severe cases, thyroidectomy(removing most of the thyroid), lobectomy(removing a portion of thyroid) etc are done. 

Liver cancer:

Liver is one of the largest organs that remove toxins from the body. Liver cancer occurs when unwanted cells start multiplying in the liver. The most common type is hepatocellular carcinoma and the most common cause is chronic infection of Hepatitis B and C. 

Symptoms

Swollen abdomen and enlarged liver 

Weight loss

Jaundice

Loss of appetite or unsatisfied hunger

Abnormal bruising or bleeding

Weakness and lethargy

Enlarged veins in belly. 

Treatment

It includes Liver transplant surgery to remove the diseased liver, Heating and Freezing of cancer cells, Chemotherapy for killing of cancerous cells , immunotherapy for advanced liver cancer. 

Conclusion:

The most important thing to keep in mind is that a number of cancers don't show symptoms right away. They take time to develop symptoms and once diagnosed, medication and treatment need to be started immediately.

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