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Periodontitis- Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

17 October, 2020 Virali Mehta

Periodontitis is an infection that is caused in the gums, by the bacteria that have been accumulated on the teeth and gums. With time the bones and teeth start damaging. But if it is treated early the damage can also be stopped easily. At different stages, the treatment can be done in different ways.

Stages of Periodontitis

Once the inflammation starts over time, periodontitis starts getting worse over time. It begins with inflammation in the gums which is known as gingivitis. One of the most initial symptoms that are observed is, bleeding from the brush or floss that is used on teeth. Discoloration on teeth is also observed, known as plaque. The plaque is a buildup of bacteria and food debris that appear in the teeth. These bacteria are already present in the mouth, but they tend to come in reaction when such harmful substances occur. If brushing, floss, or dental cleanings are not done on a regular basis then these situations appear frequently.


In the early stages, the gums start receding or start pulling away from the teeth and small pockets that have formed between the gums and teeth. These pockets form harmful bacteria. The immune system now starts fighting with the infection. Bone loss as well as bleeding during the brushing and flossing is seen.

Moderate Stage

In the next stage, one might experience bleeding and pain around the teeth and gum recession. The teeth will now start experiencing bone support and become loose. The infection can further lead to an inflammatory response.

Advanced Stage

With passing time, the connective tissue that has held the teeth in place now begins to deteriorate. The gums, bones, and other tissues are now destroyed. One might also experience severe pain while chewing, severe bad breath, as well as a foul taste in mouth. You might even lose your teeth.

Symptoms Of Periodontitis

The common symptoms include-

  • Gums bleed during brushing with teeth or floss
  • Bad breath
  • Changes in the position of the teeth
  • Receding gums
  • Building up of tartar or plaque on teeth
  • Pain when chewing
  • Foul taste in the mouth
  • The inflammatory response in the body.

Periodontitis Causes

Healthy people have different types of bacteria in their mouths, where most of them are harmless. If the teeth are not cleaned properly then these bacteria start building up on the teeth. It is caused by dental hygiene in the following way-

  • The bacteria in the mouth tend to multiply and form a substance known as dental plaque.
  • If the plaque is not removed by brushing, then the bacteria deposits the minerals over time.
  • The mineral deposit is known as tartar, thus encouraging more bacterial growth towards the root of the tooth.
  • As the attachment of the gum to the root of a tooth is disrupted over time, a periodontal gap is thus formed.
  • Harmful anaerobic bacteria gets colonized in the pocket and is multiplied, toxins are released that damage the gums, teeth, and support bone structures.

Risks involved are-

  • Smoking
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Hormonal changes in women which makes the gums more sensitive
  • Conditions that impact the immune system like HIV or leukemia.
  • Medications that lead to reducing the flow of saliva in the mouth.
  • Genetics
  • Poor nutrition.

Diagnosis Of Periodontitis

The dentist is able to detect the signs at an early stage during a routine dental examination. The dentist used a tiny ruler known as a probe to measure the pockets on the gums. It is painless and if plaque, tartar is found the dentist removes it as a part of professional cleaning. They may take dental X rays too.

Complications of Periodontitis

If it is not treated at the early stages, then the bones of the jaw can be destroyed too. The teeth might also lessen and fall out. Other complications include-

  • Painful abscesses
  • The migration of teeth may interfere with eating.
  • Receding gums and exposure of the roots of the teeth.
  • Increased risks during pregnancy include low birth weight and preeclampsia.
  • Risk of heart disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes.

Treatment of Periodontitis

Oral Hygiene Practices

The dental care team gives instructions on how to reduce the bacteria in the mouth, and keep it clean. The dentist teaches on how to use toothbrushes and dental floss properly. If you want to buy an oral healthcare product opt for India's best online pharmacy in Delhi 

  • One should brush teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste.
  • An electric toothbrush may be more effective.
  • To remove plaque it is necessary to floss once during the day.
  • A dentist visit twice a year is necessary.
  • No smoking or chewing tobacco.

Professional Cleaning

In a professional cleaning, the dentist shall remove the plaque buildup and tartar from the teeth and their roots, polish the teeth and then treat with fluoride. Any pockets that have formed could be removed by deep cleaning to enable healing. 


The antibiotics may be used as a mouthwash, gel, or an oral tablet.

  • Minocycline
  • Doxycycline
  • Amoxycillin

These medicines can be ordered online from the best online medical app in India.


Periodontitis can be cured if tested early. Regular follow-ups with the doctor are necessary. The future results depend on the current efforts that can be made. In addition to that smoking and tobacco chewing should also be stopped.