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What is an Outbreak, Epidemic And Pandemic in Covid-19

03 July, 2020 Vikrant Bhagat

COVID-19 is a disease caused by the novel coronavirus, which was initially called 2019-nCoV, by the experts of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. World Health Organization already had declared COVID-19 as an international emergency as the disease is spreading at alarming levels. COVID-19 has affected more than 1,016,372 people around the world and killed more than 53,238 people. And even where the virus hasn’t yet spread, hospitals and clinics around the world have been preparing for a rush forward of coronavirus patients as a priority over everyday illnesses they treat. 

 What Is Corona/Covid-19 Virus And Its Origin?

As the symptoms of COVID-19 closely resemble that of a common cold, fever, or flu, the populace in China was now not on excessive alert when the disease, first of all, emerged in local people. This result in Chinese citizens in addition to international travelers traveling often from China to different countries and continents, all through the vacation season, in December 2019 and January 2020, senseless of the reality that their bodies probably carried a deathly viral vector.

COVID-19 now not most effective causes prolonged episodes of cough, cold, excessive fever, and respiratory difficulties, that do not subside with conventional medications but is likewise a rather infectious disease, implying it could spread from a sick man or woman to a healthful individual, by way of merely coming in near contact. The mechanism of transmission of the n-COV virus entails air droplets emanated from a sick patient to a normal human.

Basic Definitions Of Epidemic, Pandemic, and Outbreak

AN EPIDEMIC is a disease that affects a large number of people within a community, population, or region.

PANDEMIC is an epidemic that’s spread over multiple countries or continents.

ENDEMIC is something that belongs to a particular people or country.

AN OUTBREAK is a greater-than-anticipated increase in the number of endemic cases. It can also be a single case in a new area. If it’s not quickly controlled, an outbreak can become an epidemic.

According to the World Health Organisation, when a new disease spread in the whole world it becomes pandemic. That is when an epidemic spread into two or more continents with the sustained person to person transmission. However, on 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation declared the COVID-19 outbreak from epidemic to pandemic. 


Precautions to stay safe and steer clear of acquiring COVID-19.

  1. Consciously engage in social distancing. Work from home as much as possible and even while venturing out to buy essentials like groceries and medicine, maintain a distance of at least 2 meters from anyone else.
  2. Avoid unnecessary travel. With India too recording more than 60 cases, be cautious while traveling.
  3. If you are suffering from persistent dry cough, fever, difficulty in breathing, consult a doctor immediately.
  4. If you have traveled abroad to any of the coronavirus affected countries in recent months, get screened for COVID-19.
  5. Do not panic and start believing in rumors. Practice personal hygiene - use hand sanitizers, wash hands regularly, and avoid participating in large gatherings.
  6. Since there is no vaccine available for COVID-19, practice all precautionary measures.



This novel coronavirus has led to a public health emergency of international concern so the  COVID-19 outbreak, which has now declared as ‘Pandemic’ has confronted the economic, medical, and public health infrastructure of many countries, including China, India, USA, Italy, France, and many more all over the world.

In India, even after applying proper and timely containment and mitigation measures, COVID-19 newer cases are being detected on a daily basis. India is continuing to face this situation in a well-planned approach so far. The Indian government quarantined India from the rest of the world, but the forthcoming few weeks are extremely critical. So be safe, stay healthy, and have a good day and follow government regulators as a means to stay safe.