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Dry Eye Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

30 September, 2020 Virali Mehta

Dry eyes usually uncomfortable, can never make up to a permanent vision loss. In dry eye syndrome disease, the eyes are not in a state to produce enough tears or are not able to maintain a normal layer of tears to cover the eyes. Eyes of such patients may be likely to bacterial infections or even the surface of the eyes may become actuate to causing scars on the cornea.

Symptoms of Dry eyes 

The commonly observed symptoms are-

  • Burning of eyes.
  • Redness in eyes.
  • Acute pain in the eyes.
  • Water tearing.
  • Stringy mucus.
  • Eyes tend to get tired faster.
  • Blurry vision.
  • Eyes start feeling heavy at night.
  • Difficulty in reading or sitting in front of the computer for long elongated hours.

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Causes of Dry Eyes

The glands in our eyes are useful in producing various elements. Tears in our eyes have three layers, oily outer layer, the watery middle layer, and the inner mucus layer. In this way, if the eyes fail to produce such elements at regular intervals then it can lead to such an infection in the eyes.

  • Hormone replacement therapy.
  • Exposure to the wind or dry air.
  • Allergies.
  • Some medications including antihistamines, nasal decongestants, birth control pills, and antidepressants.
  • Wearing long term contact lens.
  • Looking at a computer for long hours with minimum blinking.

Dry eyes are seen in people aged between 50 and older. The majority of them being women. These symptoms are still observed in men too. Women who are undergoing pregnancy, uterus issues, hormonal replacement therapy, and menopause, are to be considered at risk. Thus, here are some more factors that can be responsible for increasing the risk of dry eyes-

  • Chronic allergies
  • Thyroid disease or other conditions that have a tendency to push the eyes forward.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis and other such various immune system disorders.
  • Exposure keratitis, which is seen arising from sleeping with eyes being partially open.
  • Vitamin A deficiency

Treatment of Dry eyes 

  • Artificial tears- Eye drops help in increasing the moisture in the eyes are among the most common treatments.
  • Lacrimal plugs- The eye doctor might use plugs to block the holes carrying drainage in the corners of the eyes.
  • Lipflow- It helps to the inflow of the tears at regular intervals easily.
  • BlephEx- It is done by an eye care professional to clean the eyelids.

Medications of Dry eyes 

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  • The best medicine is an anti-inflammatory called Cyclosporine(Restasis), which is helpful in increasing the number of tears in the eyes and lowers the risk of damage to the cornea.
  • If the pain is severe, Corticosteroid eye drops are suggested but only for a limited period of time.
  • Cholinergies, such as Pilocarpine.
  • Xiidra, Lacrisert
  • Supplements contain Omega-3 fatty acids.

However, the home remedies that can be done from time to time are -

  • Have a habit of blinking more frequently.
  • Take frequent breaks during computer use.
  • Thoroughly remove eye makeup.
  • Clean eyelids.
  • The patient should wear quality sunglasses, a wrap style of a frame to protect the eyes from coming into contact with wind, dust, and other irritants.

Complications

Dry Eye Syndrome cannot be treated lightly as it may lead to adverse impacts like reducing vision and creating scars on the first layer of the eyes. It can further lead to Allergic Conjunctivitis, which can make one side off the face paralyzed. It may also cause the skin to act as itchy after coming in contact with a substance. Thus, prescribed eye drops should be taken and a routine checkup is what is advisable from time to time.

Outlook

Dry eyes are witnessed more during the day than at night in the patients. Thus, it is advisable to remove airflow during the day and practice more blinking so that the eyes do not turn drier at night. But, if eyes start feeling drier and suddenly the vision is lost then it is highly recommended to visit the doctor immediately and take proper medication. Dry eye syndrome is best treated at early stages otherwise it becomes difficult to be cured. Take proper care of eyes, take necessary prevention, and be safe.