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Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

30 September, 2020 Sneha Lokwani

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs, which causes inflammation in the alveoli which is filled with the fluid or pus and making it difficult to breathe. This disease is contagious, as it can get a pass from person to person by the air droplet through sneezing and coughing and it can also be spread through the contaminated objects.

Cause Of Pneumonia

  • Bacterial pneumonia: It is caused by the bacteria named, 

  1. Streptococcus pneumonia 
  2. Haemophilus influenzae 
  3. Mycoplasma pneumonia
  • Fungal pneumonia: It is usually caused in the people with a weakened immune system, by the species of fungi named,
  1. Cryptococcus species 
  2. Histoplasmosis species 
  3. Pneumocystis jirovecii
  • Viral pneumonia: It is caused by the
  1. Rhinoviruses 
  2. Respiratory syncytial virus 
  3. Influenza
  • Aspiration pneumonia
  1. Smoking: It's important to quit smoking, as it increases your odds to get prone to pneumonia, as it damages the natural defense line of the body. Switch to nicotine or other medications, Buy medications from 3MEDS, one of the best online pharmacy companies in India. 
  2. People admitted to hospitals can get prone to pneumonia, as their immune system is already weak. 
  3. Any chronic disease can increase your odds to get prone to this disease. 

Symptoms Of Pneumonia

  • The person will experience the green sputum coughed up from the lungs during coughing. 
  • The person will experience Pleuritic pain, which is extreme chest pain while coughing or breathing. 
  • There will be a sudden onset of fever
  • Nausea 
  • Vomiting 
  • Diarrhea
  • The skin of the patients will turn into purplish, because of poorly oxygenated blood. 
  • There will be extreme muscle pain and headache. 
  • The person might experience shortness of breath and fast breathing. 
  • There will be extreme fatigue and weakness. 
  • The person might experience a loss of appetite. 
  • The body temperature of aged people will be lower than normal. 

Other Complications Due To Pneumonia

  • Lung abscess, this situation takes place if pus forms in a cavity in a lung.
  • Difficulty in breathing, in severe cases patient, can't breathe properly, they need to be kept on a ventilator until their lung heals. 
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome is an emergency medical condition. 
  • Organ failure due to bacteremia, bacteria that enter the bloodstream from the lungs can spread the infection to other organs causing organ failure. 
  • Pleural effusion
  • Death

Diagnosis Of Pneumonia

If you have any of the above-mentioned symptoms, let your doctor know about it. The doctor will ask you detailed question on your symptoms and about your medical history and will do a physical examination and will ask you to perform the required following tests, 

  • Chest X-Ray: This is the precise test for the diagnosis of pneumonia, it will also determine the extent and location of infection but this cannot tell the cause of the infection. 
  • Blood test: These are performed as a confirmatory test and will help to identify the cause of the infection and it will also give the WBC count. 
  • Chest CT scan: It will give a more detailed image of your lung. 
  • Blood culture: This test will help to determine whether the microorganism from the lung has spread into the bloodstream. 
  • Sputum test: Sample of sputum from the lungs after a deep cough help to determine the cause of infection. 
  • An arterial blood gas: This will determine the body's oxygen and carbon dioxide level. 
  • Bronchoscopy: This test is performed for further investigation if medications of pneumonia is working or not. 

Treatment For Pneumonia

Treatment depends upon the type of pneumonia and the patient's age, severity, and other underlying diseases. The main goal of treatment is to cure the infection while preventing other complications. The doctor will prescribe the medications, if the condition is more serious the patient will need emergency medical attention and might be hospitalized for a few days. Buy medications from 3MEDS, Best Indian Pharmacy Store Delhi

  • Antibiotics are given to treat bacterial pneumonia. 
  • Antiviral drugs are given to treat viral pneumonia. 
  • Antifungal drugs are given to treat fungal pneumonia. 
  • Antipyretic drugs are prescribed to lower down the temperature and to relieve the pain. 
  • Cough suppressants are prescribed of lower dosage, as it's not a good idea to eliminate cough completely because coughing will help to loosen fluid from your lungs. 
  • Intravenous antibiotics injected in the veins
  • Oxygen therapy is given through the nasal tube face mask or ventilator to maintain the oxygen level in the blood
  • Respiratory therapy is given

Preventive Tips For Pneumonia

  • The first and most important prevention test is to get vaccinated against pneumonia and it's important to get your child vaccinated against pneumonia 
  • Wash your hands regularly and if you are going out carry alcohol-based sanitizer with you as practicing good hygiene can prevent pneumonia. 
  • Quit smoking
  • Keep your immune system strong by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and eating nutritious food. 
  • While coughing or sneezing use your handkerchief or disposable tissues. 

Conclusion:

It is necessary to complete the course of pneumonia, as leaving it incomplete can cause further complications. It's necessary to get diagnosed at an early stage for quick recovery, so don't ignore the symptoms.