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Glioma - Diagnosis, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

21 September, 2020 Kajal Bhavsar

What is Glioma?

Glioma is one type of tumor that occurs in the brain area and spinal cord areaGliomas begin in the gluey supportive cells or glial cells. These cells surround nerve cells and help them function.

The tumor can be produced by 3 types of glial cells. Gliomas are classified by the type of glial cell constructed in the tumor, the tumor's genetic features, it can help to predict how the tumor will behave overtime period, and the treatments most likely to work for better results.

Types of glioma include:

Astrocytomas which includes astrocytoma
anaplastic astrocytoma
glioblastoma

Ependymomas which includes
anaplastic ependymoma myxopapillary ependymoma subependymoma

Oligodendrogliomas which includes oligodendroglioma
anaplastic oligodendroglioma anaplastic oligoastrocytoma

A glioma can affect your brain function badly and it can become life-threatening depending on the location of the glioma and rate of the growth. Gliomas are one of the most and basic common types of primary brain tumors observed in humans.

The type of glioma you have helps determine your treatment and your prognosis.

Each type has different treatments.

Glioma treatment options include

  • surgery
  • radiation therapy
  • chemotherapy
  • targeted therapy
  • experimental clinical trials

Here we have mentioned the types of Glioma:

  • Astrocytoma
  • Ependymoma
  • Glioblastoma
  • Oligodendroglioma

What are the symptoms of Glioma?

The sign and symptoms of glioma differ by type of tumor as, the size of the tumor, location of tumor, and rate of growth.

  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Irritability
  • Difficulty in balancing the body
  • Urinary incontinence

Vision problems which include blurred vision, double vision, loss of peripheral vision

Difficulties in speech

Seizures, even when someone has no history of seizures

  • Vomiting
  • Confusion in brain function
  • Decline in brain function
  • Loss of memory
  • Personality changes

What are the causes of Glioma?

The actual exact cause of gliomas is not known. Still, there are some reasons that may increase your risk of a brain tumor.

With the age risk of brain tumor might increase. Gliomas are mostly observed in adults between ages 45 to 65 years old. A brain tumor can take place at any age. A few types of gliomas like ependymomas and pilocytic astrocytomas are very common in children and young adults.

Those people who have been exposed to a particular type of radiation named ionizing radiation may develop a brain tumors. Such as radiation therapy which was used to treat cancer and radiation exposure caused by atomic bombs.

Other radiations like lectromagnetic fields from power lines and radiofrequency radiation releasing from microwave ovens have not been shown to increase the risk of glioma disease.

If someone is having a family history of glioma, it can double the risk of developing symptoms of it. There might be a link between genetic variations and brain tumors.

How can we conduct a diagnosis of Glioma?

If your primary care doctor tells you that you are having a brain tumor, you may be advised to refer to a specialist- neurologist, who is trained to treat brain and nervous system disorders.

The following tests might be conducted for diagnosis:

In neurological exam, your vision, hearing, balance, coordination, strength, and reflexes are examined. If any of these are problems you might have symptoms of brain tumor.

MRI or Magnetic resonance imaging is a technique developed to help diagnose brain tumors in person.

Functional MRI, perfusion MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, might be used to evaluate the tumor and plan treatment.

CT Computerized tomography scan and PET - positron emission tomography are also carried out.

What are the treatments for Glioma?

This treatment depends on the type, size, grade, location of the tumor, your age, overall health, and preferences in your lifestyle.

A few actions Involved to remove the tumors itselfThis treatment for glioma may also require the use of some drugs to reduce the signs and symptoms of your tumor of a body part.

Sometimes you might be prescribed steroids to reduce the swelling and relieve pressure on affected areas of your brain. Anti-epileptic drugs can be used to control these seizures.

You might undergo computer-assisted brain surgery, intraoperative MRI, lasers, and awake brain surgery. This surgery might turn into a risk of infection and bleeding.

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams like X-rays or protons, which helps to kill tumor cells. Radiation therapy comes from a machine that is outside of your body. It is external beam radiation.

Chemotherapy treatment is used to kill tumor cells using drugs. These drugs are taken in pill form or injected into a vein. Chemotherapy is generally used in combination with radiation therapy to treat this gliomas disease.

Temozolomide (Temodar), is a pill that is used as a chemotherapeutic drug. Buy genuine medicines online in India
A few common side effects of such drugs include nausea and vomiting, headache, weakness, hair loss, and fever.

Targeted drug treatments are beneficial in blocking these abnormalities. These targeted drug treatments can make cancer cells die.

One targeted drug therapy that is used to treat a type of brain cancer named glioblastoma is bevacizumab - Avastin. This drug, given through is intravenous. It helps to stop the formation of new blood vessels, to cut off blood supply to a tumor, and kills the tumor cells.

Conclusion

Surgery is conducted to remove the most possible part of the tumor.Sometimes just removing a portion of your tumor can help you to reduce your signs and symptoms, it makes the treatment better and easy in comparison. You're advised to go through rehabilitation after the treatment as these things might affect your mental status. It has an impact upon vision, survival, and age.