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All you need to know about STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases

01 August, 2020 Vidyashree
A condition passed from one person to another through sexual contact is referred to as a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or sexually transmitted infection (STI). It can be contracted through indulging in unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex with an STD affected person. STDs are caused by organisms like bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may pass from person to person through blood, semen, vaginal, and other body fluids. 3MEDS, the best medicine app in India, explains the types of STDs identified and treated so far.
 

Causes of Sexually Transmitted Disease

STDs or STIs caused by organisms like-
Bacteria- it causes diseases like gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia
Parasites- it causes trichomoniasis
Viruses- it causes human papillomavirus, genital herpes, and HIV
 
Some of the risk factors that may lead to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease-
  • ·Indulging in unprotected sex
  • ·In the practice of intercourse with multiple partners
  • ·Carrying a history of STIs
  • ·Dealing with forced sexual intercourse or sexual activity like rape or assault
  • ·Misuse of alcohol or use of recreational drugs, that will make an individual willing to participate in risky behaviors
  • ·Needle sharing while injecting drugs may lead to infections such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.
  • ·Men who request doctors for prescription of drugs like sildenafil (Viagra, Revatio), tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca), and vardenafil (Levitra). These have greater chances of STIs.
     

Types of Sexually Transmitted Disease

1. Chlamydia - is an infection of Chlamydia trachomatous
 
2. Crabs or public Ice - affects public hair like armpits, mustache, beard, eyelashes or eyebrows
 
3. Genital herpes - is an infection of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
 
4.  Hepatitis B - is a long- term infection which results in liver damage
 
5. Trichomoniasis - Trichomonas vaginalis is the cause of this infection
 
6. HIV - this virus attacks the body’s immune system
 
7. Human papillomavirus - is the group of virus that affect the skin and mucous membranes
 
8. Molluscum contagiosum - is a contagious viral skin infection
 
9. Scabies - is a contagious condition caused by Sarcoptes scabiei
 
10. Syphilis - is an infection of bacterium Treponema pallidum
 
11. Gonorrhea- is a common infection caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae
 
12.  Chancroid- is a bacterial infection caused by Haemophilus ducreyi
 

Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
 

Symptoms of STDs in women
  • ·Discomfort or pain while having sex or urinating
  • ·Have sores, bumps or rashes on or around the vagina, anus, buttocks, thighs or mouth
  • ·Unusual bleeding or discharge from the vagina
  • ·Experience itchiness in or around the vagina
  • Symptoms of STDs in men
  • ·Discomfort or pain while having sex or urinating
  • ·Have sores, bumps or rashes on or around the penis, testicles, anus, buttocks, thighs or mouth
  • ·Unusual bleeding or discharge from the penis
  • ·Swollen or painful testicles
  • Possible complications that may emerge in terms of STD infection-
  • ·Pelvic pain
  • ·Pregnancy complications
  • ·Arthritis
  • ·Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • ·Eye inflammation
  • ·Infertility
  • ·Heart disease
  • ·Certain cancer like HPV, associated cervical and rectal cancers

Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Disease

In certain cases, based on symptoms alone, the doctors can’t diagnosis the infection. Even there aren’t any symptoms, depending on the sexual history, the doctor might recommend STD testing. Few testing conducted at the doctor’s office or sexual health clinic include-

  • Blood test
  • Urine test
  • Take a swab of the genitals
  • Take a swab of developed sores

Treatment for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Treatment method varies depending on the type of STD diagnosed.
 
1. For bacterial STDs - Antibiotics can treat bacterial infections. Prescribed medications can be bought at 3MEDS, the best healthcare service provider in India.
 
2. For viral STDs - Antibiotics cants treat viral infection. Certain medications can only relieve symptoms and reduce the frequency and severity of infection outbreaks.
 
3. Other STDs - Infections caused by other small organisms like pubic ice, trichomoniasis, and scabies, can be treated with oral or topical medications.
 
4. Vaccines - It can help protect an individual from HPV and hepatitis B
 

Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Abstain from sexual contact
  • Use condoms for effective protection against many STDs
  • Avoid vaginal and anal intercourse with new partners until both are tested for STIs
  • Dental dams can provide protection during oral sex
  • Take up regular STD screening, if you are sexually active
  • Discuss sexual history before indulging in sexual activities with a stranger
  • Get vaccinated before sexual exposure, to prevent a certain type of STDs
  • Don't consume excessive alcohol or drugs
     

Ending Note:

If you happen to experience the above-mentioned symptoms or at the risk of being diagnosed of STDs, then don’t hesitate to seek medical help. Be honest with the health care workers and never think that you are being judged.