Addiction of Tobacco
The dried and cured leaves of young branches of tobacco plant – Nicotiana tobaccuum and N. rustica (Family Solanaceae) make tobacco. Human beings are using tobacco for more than 400 years. In the early 17th century, it spread to European countries and was first used by Red Indians in America. Tobacco is mainly consumed in the form of smoking cigarettes), chewing, and sniffing. In the present era, it is smoked all over the world.
Tobacco consist of an extremely poisonous alkaloid called nicotine. It is a harmful intoxicant. It is so toxic that the amount of nicotine present in one cigarette can be mortal if it is inoculated intravenously into a person. Its continuous use leads to addiction. Tobacco smoke also contains carbon monoxide, N-Nitrosodimethyne, polycyclic hydro-carbons like benzpyrene and tar.
Consequences of Nicotine
- Its high concentration paralyzes neurons.
- It increases the rate of blood pressure, cardiac output, and heartbeat.
- It relaxes the muscles.
- It secretes adrenalin and nor-adrenalin hormones by stimulating adrenal medulla.
- It increases the tightening of blood vessels.
- It restores the conduction of nerve impulses.
- The regular use of tobacco causes addiction.
Consequences of Tobacco Addiction
Consumption of tobacco may give some temporary relief to the strained nerves but its regular use causes a lot of ill consequences on different organs of the body. For smoking, only 10% of the smoke is inhaled. The absorption rate of the tobacco smoke is very slow and it shows ill effects only after elongated use.
Diseases caused due to Tobacco Smoking
- Emphysema: Tobacco smoke causes inflammation of lung alveoli. This decreases surface area for gaseous exchange which leads to emphysema.
- Irritation and inflammation of the mucosa of throat and bronchi, due to tobacco smoke, causes coughing and bronchitis. The chemicals present in it inactivate cilia of respiratory tract so the phlegm pile-up.
- Cardiovascular diseases: Nicotine causes the high secretion of adrenaline and nor-adrenalin. It increases the rate of heartbeat and blood pressure which leads to cardiovascular diseases.
- Cancer: About 95% of victims of lung cancers are linked with smoking. Oral cancer and Lip cancer are also related to smoking and reverse smoking. While tobacco chewing causes mouth cancer. Benzpyrene of tobacco is carcinogenic in nature. Tobacco causes about 33 percent of all cancers.
- Those who smoke have higher chances of byssinosis.
- Nicotine of tobacco smoke holds back the growth of fetal in the mother’s womb.
- Smoking also exasperates pulmonary tuberculosis.
- Carbon monoxide of tobacco smoke quickly binds hemoglobin of RBS and forms carboxy-hemoglobin. It causes CO-poisoning that descends O2 – carrying capacity of hemoglobin of RBCs. It leads to hypoxia in the body tissues.
- It causes duodenal and gastric ulcers due to increased secretion of gastric juices.
Smoking shortens the lifespan. Smoking of one cigarette shortens the lifespan by 11 minutes while a cartoon takes about 1.5 days. It is a health hazard and it should be avoided. Tobacco-addicts need counseling and medical help to get rid of the habit. One can also consult the best healthcare service provider through online mode.
The step has taken to prevent and dispirit people from Tobacco Consumption
- It’s mandatory to put a warning – “Chewing of tobacco is injurious to health” on chewing tobacco products.
- All India Radio and Doordarshan have prohibited the direct advertisement of tobacco or tobacco related products.
- In Delhi and Andhra Pradesh, smoking is prohibited in public places.
- It is also prohibited in hospitals, dispensaries, educational institutions, domestic air flights, air-conditioned chair cars, buses, sleeper coaches, and conference rooms.
- Anti-Tobacco Act was passed on May 1, 2004. It put a ban on the sale of tobacco products within 100 meters of educational institutions from December 1, 2004. It put mandatory portrayal of statutory warning including pictorial symbols on packets of tobacco products. It is expected that by 2030, tobacco will be the single biggest cause of death worldwide considering for 10 million deaths per year.
The extent of the Problem
- In India: Tobacco has the highest incidence of mouth throat cancers in the world. It kills about 1 million people every year.
- Worldwide: Tobacco causes about 20 percent of all deaths in developing countries. It kills around 10,000 people daily (one person every 10 seconds). About 3.5 million people die every year, of which 1 million die in developing countries.
May 31 is observed as “No tobacco day” across the world. It is said that globally 47 percent of men and 12 percent of women smoke. There are around 1.1 billion smokers in the world. Earlier tobacco was called “pipe of peace” because of the feeling of tranquility, alertness, and activity. To prevent oneself from arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, coronary diseases, coronary artery occlusion, heart failure, etc. it’s necessary to stop the consumption of tobacco. One can buy medicines online to stay safe in this pandemic.
Do share this article with your near and dear ones to keep them healthy and happy.