In our childhood we have often heard about the story of king and how he fights to protect his village people. So the same thing we can relate to understand Antibodies and its function. So here human body is referred to as village and our immune system is referred to as king now this king has his weapons to fight against bad people to protect his village (human body).
The king has his various weapons as white blood cells, antibodies, bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymphatic system which helps to fight. Now by using this weapons we are able to fight against bad people and protect. Now the bad people in our case foreign substances such as pathogens, bacteria, virus, and infectious agent that cause disease in the body.
So now antibodies are one of the means to fight against foreign agents and protect ourselves and prevent ourselves against any disease. Now antibodies are made up of special proteins which our immune system produces to fight against antigens.
Antigen triggers the production of anti-bodies against it. By fighting against antigens i.e. bad people you can protect human body i.e. village through the means of antibodies i.e. king’s weapon.
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Antibodies are made up of B cells, which is also termed as B lymphocytes and they are made in bone marrow and seen in the blood and lymph. Antibodies have a special distinctive Y shape look which acts as key to how they works to fight against antigens.
At the tips of antibodies are the unique sites present on which they will bind with a matching site on antigens and helps to destroy them.
Antibodies are also termed as immunoglobulins and they are abbreviated as Ig. Specially, immunoglobins are the special proteins that function as antibodies which becomes our one weapon in the fight. They are found in plasma which is the liquid part of blood and lymph and also other body fluids and in the membrane of many cells.
Here are the five classes of immunoglobulins, which can be best explained by where they were found and what function they play :
IgA which is termed as immunoglobulin A and it is found in breathing and digestive passages as well as in saliva and tears and blood and also among other places which helps protect surfaces that are exposed to foreign substances from outside the human body.
IgD which is termed as immunoglobulin D and it is found in cells in the tissues in the chest and belly which function as receptors and it’s least understood of the immunoglobulins.
IgE which is termed as immunoglobulin E and it is found in lung and skin and mucous membranes which help expel parasites in the intestines and are involved in allergic reactions.
IgG which is termed as immunoglobulin G and it is found in all body fluid and it’s critical to fighting infections from viruses and bacteria and they are only antibodies that can pass over the placenta from mother to fetus and the most common but smallest antibody.
IgM which is termed as immunoglobulin M and it is found in blood and lymph fluid and the first antibody to respond to an infection and the largest antibody.
IgG and IgM are two of the antibodies which acts as key players in our body when it comes to warding off infectious diseases that harm us.
Now when antibodies are identified in the blood serum of animals with an immunity to a disease then the serum may be injected into other animals by making effort to transfer that immunity to help them.
So simply the working of anti-bodies can be explained by, when any antigen that is antigen that is present on pathogen enters into the human body then our body’s lymphotes, a type of white blood cells recognizes that antigen and produces antibodies against it to protect ourselves and this antibodies have the specific binding site into which the specific shape of antigen fits into it and then the anti-bodies destroys antigens and it is digested by macrophages.
Also our body remembers the antigen so when similar antigen comes again then its get that it has once come first and fights off easily because we can easily fight against it. So this is how our antibodies works to fight off disease.