Meningitis: Types, Symptoms and Treatment

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Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges. The meninges are the three membranes that cover the brain and medulla spinalis. Meningitis can occur when fluid surrounding the meninges gets infected.

Viral and bacterial infections are the most common causes of meningitis. Other causes may include:

  1. cancer
  2. chemical irritation
  3. fungi
  4. drug allergies

Some viral and bacterial meningitis are contagious. they will be transmitted by coughing, sneezing, or close contact.

Types of Meningitis

Viral and bacterial infections are the foremost common causes of meningitis. There are several other sorts of meningitis. Examples include cryptococcal, which is caused by a mycosis, and carcinomatous, which is cancer-related. These types are less common.

1.Viral meningitis

Viral meningitis is that the commonest sort of meningitis. Viruses within the Enterovirus category cause 85 percent of cases. These are more common during the summer and fall, and that they include:

  1. coxsackievirus A
  2. coxsackievirus B
  3. echoviruses

Viruses within the Enterovirus category cause about 10 to fifteen million infections trusted Source per annum, but only a little percentage of individuals who get infected will develop meningitis.

Other viruses which will lead to meningitis are

  1. West Nile virus
  2. Influenza
  3. Mumps
  4. HIV
  5. Measles
  6. Herpesviruses
  7. Coltivirus.

Viral meningitis typically goes away without treatment. However, some cases do get to be treated.

2.Bacterial meningitis

Bacterial meningitis, a contagious disease, is caused by infection from certain bacteria. It’s fatal if left untreated. Between 5 to 40 percent trusted Source of youngsters and 20 to 50 percent trusted Source of adults with this condition die. this is often true even with proper treatment.

The most common sorts of bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitides, Haemophilus influenza, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus.

3.Fungal meningitis

Fungal meningitis may be a rare sort of meningitis. It’s caused by a fungus that infects your body then spreads from your bloodstream to your brain or medulla spinalis.

People with a weakened system are more likely to develop fungal meningitis. This includes people infected with cancer or HIV.

The most common funguses associated with fungal meningitis are Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, Histoplasma, Coccidioides

4.Parasitic meningitis

5.Non-infectious meningitis

What are the Symptoms of Meningitis?

The symptoms of viral and bacterial meningitis are often similar within the beginning. However, bacterial meningitis symptoms are usually more dangerous. The symptoms also vary counting on your age.

Viral meningitis symptoms

Viral meningitis in infants may cause:

  • decreased appetite
  • irritability
  • sleepiness
  • lethargy
  • fever

In adults, viral meningitis may cause:

  • headaches
  • fever
  • stiff neck
  • seizures
  • sensitivity to bright light
  • sleepiness
  • lethargy
  • nausea and vomiting
  • decreased appetite

Bacterial meningitis symptoms

Bacterial meningitis symptoms develop suddenly. they'll include:

  • altered mental status
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • sensitivity to light
  • irritability
  • headache
  • fever
  • chills
  • stiff neck
  • purple areas of skin that resemble bruises
  • sleepiness
  • Lethargy

Seek immediate medical attention and search it on an online pharmacy store in India if you experience these symptoms. Bacterial and viral meningitis are often deadly. There are no thanks to knowing if you've got bacterial or viral meningitis just by judging how you are feeling. Your doctor will get to perform tests to work out which sort you've got.

Fungal meningitis symptoms

Symptoms of fungal meningitis resemble the opposite sorts of this infection. These may include:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • sensitivity to light
  • fever
  • headache
  • confusion or disorientation

What are the Causes of Meningitis?

Each sort of meningitis features a slightly different cause, but each ultimately acts within the same way: A bacterium, fungus, virus, or parasite spreads through the bloodstream until it reaches the brain or medulla spinalis. There, it sets up within the lining or fluids around these vital body parts and starts developing into a more advanced infection.

Non-infectious meningitis is due to physical injury or other condition; it doesn’t involve an infection.

Who should be vaccinated against meningococcal meningitis?

These five groups are considered in danger and will get a meningitis vaccine:

  • college freshmen who sleep in dorms and haven’t been vaccinated
  • adolescents who are 11 to 12 years old
  • people traveling to countries where meningococcal disease is common
  • children ages 2 or older who don’t have a spleen or who have a compromised system

Diagnosis of Meningitis -

Physical examination: Physical examination includes a check for fever, stiffness within the neck, and decreased consciousness.

Spinal tap (lumbar puncture): to see the pressure within the central systema nervosum. This test also helps to spot inflammation or bacterial infection.

Complete blood count (CBC): to see for elevated white blood corpuscle count.

Blood culture: For identifying infectious bacteria.

X-ray: Chest X-ray - For diagnosing pneumonia infection, tuberculosis, or mycosis. Pneumonia infection can spread to the brain.

CT scan: CT scan of the top shows problems within the brain.

How Is Meningitis Treated?

Your treatment is decided by the explanation for your meningitis.

Bacterial meningitis requires immediate hospitalization. Early diagnosis and treatment will save one from having brain damage and death. Bacterial meningitis is treated with intravenous antibiotics. There’s no specific antibiotic for bacterial meningitis. It depends on the bacteria involved.

Fungal meningitis is treated with antifungal agents.

Parasitic meningitis may either involve the treatment of only symptoms or an attempt of treating the infection directly. Counting on the cause, this sort may recover without antibiotic treatment. If it worsens, however, your doctor may attempt to treat the infection itself.

Viral meningitis may resolve on its own, but some causes of viral meningitis are treated with intravenous antiviral medications. These medications can be ordered through medicine delivery at doorstep near me.

Conclusion

Bacterial meningitis is serious which may be fatal within days without prompt antibiotic treatment. Delayed treatment increases the danger of permanent brain damage or sometimes death. it is also important to speak to your doctor if a loved one or someone you're employed with has meningitis. you'll get to take medications which can be ordered through Healthcare products Delhi to stop getting the infection.